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Drugs and Crime

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Cover 1
Title Page 4
Copyright 5
Table of Contents 6
List of Figures and Tables 10
Acknowledgments 12
Introduction 14
Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada 15
Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour 16
Chapter 1 Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures 18
Youth 19
Adults 22
Chapter 2 Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Profile 32
Selected Important Definitions 33
Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour 35
The Role of Intoxication 51
Dependence and Criminal Behaviour 51
Chapter 3 The Legal and Political Landscape 64
The Road to Repression 64
The War on Drugs 69
Europe 78
The Americas 82
Different Concepts and Approaches 86
Normalizing the Relationship With Users 87
Proximal Elements 92
Chapter 4 Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization 92
Distal Elements 109
Chapter 5 Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization 114
The Evolving Drug–Crime Relationship 115
Deviant Trajectories 117
Factors That Influence the Progression and Maintenance of Deviant Trajectories 125
Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption 128
Women’s Distinctive Trajectory 130
Chapter 6 Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization 136
The Integrative Model 137
Risk Factors 138
Deviant Lifestyles 139
Access to Treatment 152
Chapter 7 Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System 152
Punishment or Rehabilitation? 153
Treating Drug Dependence in Offenders 156
Ingredients for Treatment Success 166
The Therapeutic Relationship 174
Extension of Social Control 177
Conclusion 184
The Drug–Crime Relationship 186
Implementing Appropriate Policies 188
Providing Suitable Care 190
References 192
Authors and Translator 238

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